Named Entities

A listing of symbols (i.e. entities) and their ASCII textural counterparts (i.e. their naming) as rendered by most browsers (circa 2017) that I am likely to ever want to use (or in other words, not a complete listing).

My motivation is the desire to encode future web pages in base ASCII as much as possible; thus, this is a way to express more esoteric symbols in ASCII (and/or with standard American typewriter keys).


I use the '&' (&amp;) more than any other named entity, while '<' (&lt;) & '>' (&gt;) are essential for writing code examples.

&  &amp;
< &lt;
> &gt;
" &quot;
I really never bother with &quot;.


I have come to know and love the © symbol, so much so that I have its numeric code memorized (&#169;). But &copy; is cleaner, don't you think?

©  &copy;
®  &reg;
™  &trade;


I never encode the '$' sign, as it's part of ASCII. But '€' comes in handy often enough.

¢  &cent;
£  &pound;
¥  &yen;
€  &euro;


The fractions are the last of the symbols I commonly use. The syntax is simple enough: &frac##; where the first # is the numerator and the second # is the denominator. Careful, though, not every fraction is available. These are the ones I found.

½            (encoded as &frac12;)
⅓  ⅔
¼  ¾
⅕  ⅖  ⅗  ⅘
⅙  ⅚
⅛  ⅜  ⅝  ⅞


I lied. I also use the degree sign on occasion. As in, 'It's smoking hot in here, must be 100° or more!'

°  &deg;


I don't use arrows that much, but that's likely because I never really knew they existed (and, you know -> or => works fine most of the time). But who knows what I will do now that the cat is out of the bag?

Note, many of the symbol groups follow a pattern, which makes full elucidation of the list redundant once the pattern is understood.

Where # is either {'l', 'r', 'u', 'd', 'h'}
For left, right, up, down, horizontal
←  →  ↑  ↓  ↔

Or if that's not clear:
←  &larr;
→  &rarr;
↑  &uarr;
↓  &darr;
↔  &harr;

But like I said, the real trick is to remember the pattern.

Double Arrow
Same as before with the 'A' capitalized
&#Arr; with # being {'l', 'r', 'u', 'd', 'h'}
⇐  ⇒  ⇑  ⇓  ⇔

⇐  &lArr;
⇒  &rArr;  
⇑  &uArr;
⇓  &dArr;
⇔  &hArr;

Carriage Return
↵  &crarr;

⟨  ⟩   &#ang;  {'l' or 'r'}: so &lang; or &rang;
‹  ›   &#saquo;  {'l' or 'r'}: so &lsaquo; or &rsaquo;
«  »  &#aquo;  {'l' or 'r'}: so &laquo; or &raquo;

Box Bars

I hear tell back in the day, a fair bit of ASCII art was made with the following symbols. Of course, if one wishes to memorize, grocking the pattern is likely key, but what do I know?

⌈  &lceil;
⌉  &rceil;
⌊  &lfloor;
⌋  &rfloor;


Lists like this (just like this one) can get carried away (just like this one has).

In the end, I question the utility of hyper-specialized symbols when a tradition of image imports would be more versatile. But that was not the chosen path.

◊  &loz;
♠  &spades;
♣  &clubs;
♥  &hearts;
♦  &diams;

Almost Done

The next three sections are likely why I started this project in the first place. But the raw file has been sitting on my desktop for half a year now, so the rational at this remove is hazy at best. Still, I'm pretty sure it must have been a mix of wanting to use Greek Letters (to trick out make-believe names) and the desire to utilize Mathematical Symbols (to look smart and the like); and while I'm at it, why not use Section Breaks to flout my gramatical acumen?

Foreign Language Arts

The Greek ones might, also, come in handy for math stuff and the like.

While the others... well, let's just say:

Φ'∇ε βξξη ΚΝΘWη 2 ΡιãΨ!

Greek Letters

For the Greek Letters, if the first letter is Upper Case (&Gamma; = Γ), one gets the Upper Case Letter; and if the first letter is lower case (&gamma; = γ), one gets the lower case letter.
Α  α  &alpha;
Β  β  &beta;
Γ  γ  &gamma;
Δ  δ  &delta;
Ε  ε  &epsilon;
Ζ  ζ  &zeta;
Η  η  &eta;
Θ  θ  &theta;
Ι  ι  &iota;
Κ  κ  &kappa;
Λ  λ  &lambda;
Μ  μ  &mu;
Ν  ν  &nu;
Ξ  ξ  &xi;
Ο  ο  &omicron;
Π  π  &pi;
Ρ  ρ  &rho;
Σ  σ  &sigma;
Τ  τ  &tau;
Υ  υ  &upsilon;
Φ  φ  &phi;
Χ  χ  &chi;
Ψ  ψ  &psi;
Ω  ω  &omega;

Funky Accents

For the tilde symbol ('˜'), &tilde; yields the symbol alone, while &#tilde; (where # is in the set {ANIOU aniou}) yields the corresponding letter decorated with a ˜.

In other words:
˜   &tilde;
à &Atilde;
ã  &atilde;

And thus, assuming the pattern is now understood, what follows is just sample text (for purposes of visual selection).

   A  E  I  O  U  Y    a  e  i  o  u  y    code           

´  Á  É  Í  Ó  Ú  Ý    á  é  í  ó  ú  ý    &#acute;
¨  Ä  Ë  Ï  Ö  Ü  Ÿ    ä  ë  ï  ö  ü  ÿ    &#uml;

ˆ  Â  Ê  Î  Ô  Û  Ŷ    â  ê  î  ô  û  ŷ    &#circ;

`  À  È  Ì  Ò  Ù       à  è  ì  ò  ù       &#grave;

˜   Ã  Ñ  Ĩ  Õ  Ũ       ã  ñ  ĩ  õ  ũ       &#tilde;  (N n) 

˚  Å  å    &Aring;  (A a)

¸  Ç  ç    &Ccedil; (C c)

   Ø  ø    &Oslash; (Oo)

Two Letter Patterns of the Form &##lig;
AE  ae  OE  oe  sz
Æ   æ   Œ   œ   ß

Whole Word Letters
Ð  &ETH;
ð  &eth;
þ  &thorn;


Eh, I find it fun.

Mathematical Symbols

Because sometimes a person just wants to show off. And, you know, because some ideas (namely mathematical ones) are easier to express using well defined mathematical symbols. Go figure.
ϑ  &thetasym;
ϒ  &upsih;
ϖ  &piv;
•  &bull;
…  &hellip;
′  &prime;
″  &Prime;
‾  &oline;
⁄  &frasl;
℘  &weierp;
ℑ  &image;
ℜ  &real;
ℵ  &alefsym;
∀  &forall;
∂  &part;
∃  &exist;
∅  &empty;
∇  &nabla;
∈  &isin;
∉  &notin;
∋  &ni;
∏  &prod;
∑  &sum;
−  &minus;
∗  &lowast;
√  &radic;
∝  &prop;
∞  &infin;
∠  &ang;
∧  &and;
∨  &or;
∩  &cap;
∪  &cup;
∫  &int;
∴  &there4;
∼  &sim;
≅  &cong;
≈  &asymp;
≠  &ne;
≡  &equiv;
≤  &le;
≥  &ge;
⊂  &sub;
⊃  &sup;
⊄  &nsub;
⊆  &sube;
⊇  &supe;
⊕  &oplus;
⊗  &otimes;
⊥  &perp;
⋅  &sdot;
¬  &not;
±  &plusmn;
ƒ  &fnof;
÷  &divide;
×  &times;
end math
I don't know what most of these mean, but I know enough to know that a 'T' would make a pretty good symbol for a Trump supporter, while a '⊥' more-or-less summarizes the opinion of many detractors.

See? Everywhere, math!

Section Break

And to round it out, we have a few additional punctuation marks to separate sections and... um, other things.
¡  &iexcl;
¦  &brvbar;
§  &sect;
¶  &para;
·  &middot;
¿  &iquest;
†  &dagger;
‡  &Dagger;
‰  &permil;

Color Test

Sometimes a little color hits the spot. Most of the time, it does not. All the same, named colors seem like they might be the smart choice. There are 144 of them... or so, I seem to recall.


And That's a Wrap

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© Brett Paufler, circa 2017